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میبدشناسی جانب اللهی - دنباله چکیده ی دفتر چهارم بخش پایانی آجر پزی


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تاریخ:سه شنبه 27 مرداد 1394-04:23 ب.ظ

دنباله چکیده ی دفتر چهارم بخش پایانی آجر پزی

سوخت کوره های دستی هیزم  بود و 10 تا 15 روز می سوخت  اما سوخت کوره قمی نفت کوره است كه چون فشاری است 12 ساعت می سوزانند .

قالب : قالب آجر مربع شكل و معمولاً  اندازه آن 20× 20 بود و كف داشت .  گل آجر را نیز خیلی باید لگد می كردند و به اصطلاح تو سر هم می زدند تا خوب ورز داده شود . افزون براین پنجه كش می كردند كه سنگ یا پاره آجری در آن نباشد . برای شروع کار قالب را اول در خاكستر می زدند كه گل به آن نچسبد و خشت به راحتی از  قالب بیرون  بیاید . بعد ازمالیدن هم كمی خاكستر روی آن می پاشید ند كه زودتر خشك شود .

انواع آجر

1- آجر فرشی  که برای فرش کردن کف اتاق مورد استفاده قرار می گرفت.  این آجر نازك بود و پس از مالیدن با تخته ای به نام تیر روی آن را صاف  می كردند

2- آجر اومال (owmâl) برای زیرزمین و جو و كریك(korik)  که حوضچه ی تقسیم آب قنات بود به كار می رفت ، این آجر چون موقع مالیدن دست در آب می زدند و روی آن صاف می كردند اثر پنجه ی  دست روی آن بود ،

3- آجر انباری كه بزرگ تر و كلفت تر از آجر فرشی  بود ، برای حوض و آب انبار به كارمی رفت .

4- آجر نیمه : که برای تهیه ی آن  وقتی هنوز درقالب بود با تیغه ی مخصوص از وسط نصف می كردند  بعد در كوره می گذاشتند

The brick was in cubic mould of 20 in 20 which were robed on the floor. After being dried, the workers would set them in the kiln. In the manual kilns, the raw bricks were set around in a circular form inside the covered cavity up till the ceiling or even over the ceiling.

The fuel : there was a channel like the channel beneath the hot water reservoir of a public bath which was provided for firing and heating the water called 'tun'. The fuel for a manual kiln was bushes of desert. The fireman would push the bushes forward beneath the hot water reservoir by a two headed iron rod. The raw brick would get soft and fragile at the cause of heating and if the fire did not get to some bricks they would pour down or stick to each other. So the artisan would put a stable fire continuously for a period of 10-15 days. The fuel used in a qomi kilns was kerosene or Mâzut. There was a tunnel beeath the main well the cavity of which would reach to 16 meters. On the walls of the cavity, there was an iron bar. The fuel would pass trough a pipe which passed the tunnel. When the fuel was fired, the flame was blown by an electric fan. By such a method, the fire would get everywhere through the whole kiln. The period of time was 24 hours for heating in these kilns. Today pressured type kilns are replacing the old kilns.

 




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