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میبدشناسی جانب اللهی - چکیده ی چهل گفتار در مردم شناسی میبد (چكیده ی دفتر 4 )


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تاریخ:چهارشنبه 7 خرداد 1393-11:20 ق.ظ

چکیده ی چهل گفتار در مردم شناسی میبد (چكیده ی دفتر 4 )

 

6-كارگاه های قندسازی  : در روش های سنتی برای تهیه ی قند برحسب نیاز ومیزان تولید حداقل مقدار دولنگه ( گونی) شكر در ظرف های مسی بزرگی به نام "پاتیل " می ریختند و با هیزم یا چراغ كوره حرارت می دادند  و حداقل سه ساعت می جوشاند ند ، تا زهم آن برود ، چون وقتی  جوش می آمد ، مقدارزیادی كف روی آن جمع می شد ، كه برای پیش گیری از سرریز شدن هر باركه به این مرحله       می رسید. مقداری آب در آن می ریختند ، كف ها  می بست ، وحالت لجن به خود می گرفت كه آن را جمع آوری  می كردند و چند سفیده ی تخم مرغ به محلول شكر می زدند ، تا جرم و آشغال موجود در شكر را به خود جذب كند ، این عمل تا    مرحله ی نهایی چند بار تكرار می شد  سپس شیره  را از صافی عبور می دادند ، تا كاملاً صاف شود . و مجدداً آن را در پاتیل می ریختند و به آن جوهر قند می زدند ، تا زردی شكر برطرف  وقند آن سفید شود . با این حال قند بی جوهر مرغوب تر وكیلویی دو تومان گران تر بود

1-6- قالب ریزی قند : برای ریختن شیره در قالب اول آن را میخ می كردند یعنی یك میخ را با پارچه ای  می پیچیدند  و در سر قالب كه سوراخ بود ، فرو می بردند كه وقتی چاشنی در آن می ریزند ، چون هنوز گرم بود و به ا صطلاح نبسته بود ، از آن   طرف بیرون نیاید .  بعدها استفاده از"چوئوش" (čowouš) رایج شد  این وسیله یك چهارچوب مشبك بود كه یك صفحه ی میخ كوبی شده در زیر آن با فاصله ی طول یك قالب قرار داشت به طوری كه هر میخ در مقابل هر شبكه و درمركز آن قرار      می گرفت  وقتی قالب ها را در شبكه چوئوش به گونه ای كه سر آن رو به پا یین باشد قرار می دادند ، میخ وارد سوراخ موجود در نوك قالب شده و راه خروج شیره از قالب را می گرفت ، در هوای زمستان 2تا5/2 و در تابستان5 تا 6 ساعت طول می كشید ، تا شیره در قالب سرد شود ، در این حال برای این كه شیره های اضافی از قند خارج سازند یك "چپی " (čapi) كه در واقع نوعی سینی سبدباف ( كه ازتركه اناریا درخت بید می بافتند ) بود داخل پاتیل با قطر كمتر می گذاشتند كه زیر آن خالی بماند ، بعد میخ قالب ها را می كشیدند  و قالب ها را به گونه ای كه سرآن ها به پایین بود ، در داخل پاتیل روی "چپی" كنار هم می چیدند  شیره ی اضافه  به تدریج از سوراخ نوك قالب بیرون آمده در پاتیل می ریخت . روز بعد با بیرون آمدن شیره از نوك قالب حد اقل نصف قند سفید می شد ،  برای گرفتن بقیه ی شیره ی اضافی قند كه حالا همه در نوك قند جمع شده بود ، قند را از قالب بیرون می آوردند ، و آن را كرباس پیچ  می كردند . كرباس به تدریج شیره ها را جذب می كرد و قند  كاملا سفید      می شد .  شیره هایی كه درپاتیل ریخته بود ، اگر بی جوهر بود  مجدداً  می جوشاندند  وآن را تبدیل به قند  می كردند . و این عمل چند بار تكرار می شد( یعنی شیره ای كه باز از قند همین شیره بیرون می آمد دوباره تبدیل به قند می شد) تا وقتی كه شیره كاملا زرد شده و   قا بلیت قند شدن خود را از دست بدهد . در مرحله ی آخر از آن نبات یا آب نبات تهیه می كردند . امروزه قا لب ها را در دستگاه برقی به نام  " سرا ندر پوش" كه صفحه ای گرد و متحرك است قرار می دهند كه با چرخش و نیروی گریز از مركز شیره ی قند را می كشد .

6-Sugar Factory Workshops: In traditional methods in supply of sugar was according to the need and the quantity of production. At least two bales of sugar were put in copper pots called “pâtil”. Workers would heat it the sugar melted in water by wood, bushes or they would put it on ovens at least for three hours, so that the unpleasant taste disappear. When the liquid reached the boiling degree, there would appear so much foam on the surface. They would pour some water on the liquid so the syrup not to overlap the pot. The foam would change to a muddy shape. They would collect the frozen foam and take it out. They would add the white portion of eggs to the liquid so that to absorb the extra germs. They would repeat this for several times. Then the liquid was filtered to get pure syrup. They would put it again in the pot and would add a chemical compound so that the yellow color disappear and get the white color. But anyway people would prefer a white sugar without the chemical additives and it was at least two Toomans per kilo more expensive in the market.

6.1-Moulding the sugar: In order to pour the syrup in conic moulds, the workers would put a nail at the head of cone mould. That is they would put a nail along with a piece of tissue to keep the hole at the head of the cone mould. If the hole was not fastened, the syrup was poured down when put in the mould. By fastening the hole, it would not pour down while it was still liquid. Later, the usage of “čowouš” was used. This was an instrument like a mosaic metal surface with nails on the surface. When the moulds were held on the surface each nail would enter the hole of one mould. Each nail was situated exactly where the mould was put. When the casts were laid down on the surface, each nail would enter the hole of the mould and that would fasten it. In a winter temperature, it would take 2- 2.5 hours and in the summer for at least 5-6 hours for the syrup to cool down and solidify as sugar. In order to take out the extra syrup from the of the moulds, the workers would use a “čapi” which was actually like a woven basket tray (woven stems of pomegranate or willow tree) were held in the pot ‘pâtil’ with a less diameter, so that a space would remain beneath . Then the workers would take out the nails from the moulds and would put the moulds somehow that the head were toward the down in the pot ‘pâtil’ on the ‘čapi’ side by side. The extra syrup would pour down gradually from the holes on the top of each mould and would pour down in the pot. The day after, by the syrup coming out of the moulds, the sugar was semi-whitened. In order to take the rest of the extra syrup out of the moulds, workers would put the sugar in pieces of a special canvas tissue or ‘Karbâs’ and fastened it. The tissue would absorb the syrup gradually. The sugar was now white completely. The syrup which poured down in the pot, if they had not added that chemical substance for whitening, they would boil it again in order to be poured in moulds as cone sugar. They would repeat the action several times ( that is the liquid coming out of each mould was put in the moulds again and again up till the time the liquid would change the color to yellow and then it was not possible to put in moulds for making sugar any more

 




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