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میبدشناسی جانب اللهی - چکیده ی چهل گفتار درمردم شناسی میبد ( دفتر چهارم )


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تاریخ:سه شنبه 29 بهمن 1392-07:50 ب.ظ

چکیده ی چهل گفتار درمردم شناسی میبد ( دفتر چهارم )

روش كار :  برای رنگ كردن نخ اول  باید آن را خیس كنند برای این منظور نخست باید كلاف ها را زنجیر كنند ، یعنی دو لایه آن را از یكدیگر عبور داده به صورت یك رشته زنجیر  آن ها را  به هم متصل كنند و در حوضچه ی مخصوص نم بیندازند . در آب حوضچه مقدار كمی آبكو ( مایع نرم كننده شبیه ریكا ساخت آلمان  كه نوع ایرانی آن به صابون معروف است) در نخ می زنند   تا زودتر خیس شود . در قدیم اول درهمان حوضچه كلاف را لگد می كردند سپس آن را از آب بیرون آورده ، روی تخته سنگی به نام "سل "(sel)كه در ارتفاع یك متری كار گذاشته شده بود    می انداختند ؛ سپس دو نفر كنار هم می ایستادند  و با وسیله ی  چوبی زوزنقه شكلی به نام "كتك"  (kotak)  كه دسته ای به طول حدود40 سانتیمتر داشت كلاف ها را به اصطلاح كتك می كردند ، یعنی به آن ضربه می زدند تا كاملاً خیس شود ، زیرا اگر حتی یك نخ آن خشك بماند رنگ به خود نمی گیرد ، بعد از آن كه از خیس شدن كامل كلاف ها مطمئن شدند ، آن ها را به چوب مخصوص كه در دیوار تعبیه شده بود می آویختند   ، و چوب كوتاهی به بلندی  50 سانتیمر به نام " پیچونه " راداخل كلاف ها  انداخته و باچرخش پروانه ای  می پیچید ند  ، سر دیگر كلاف را نیز به همین ترتیب می پیچاندند  ، تا آب آن كاملاً گرفته شود ،  امروزه همه این عملیات به وسیله ی دستگاه های خودكار انجام می شود 

ازدیگر صنایع سنتی میبد صنایع سنگ ابزاری به شرح زیربود :

3- آسیاب : درمیبد نیروی محركه آسیا آب قنات بود( درجنوب ایران منبع تأمین این نیروآب رودخانه ودر شرق ایران باد بود ، كه نمونه مشهورآن آسیاب های شوشتر وآسیاب های بادی خواف است )  ، برای استفاده ازآب قنات لازم بود ، راه كاری برای افزایش نیروی آب به كاربسته شود  و این كار از طریق انباشت آب میسربود ، برای این منظوردر مسیر قنات تنوره  ای به شكل مخروط وارونه و به عمق 5 تا18 متر برحسب شرایط قنات حفر می شد ، تنوره خروجی بسیارتنگی  به نام" نوچنگك"  nowčangok)= (تنبوشه ) داشت  كه قطر دهانه ی آن برابر با پهنای سه انگشت میانی چسبیده به هم بود ،  لذا آب با فشار زیادی ازآن خارج شده به روی  پروانه های چرخ آسیاب می ریخت  ، وآن را می چر خاند

 مكان آسیاب : حداقل آبی كه می تواند ، یك سنگ آسیاب را بچرخاند ، به واحد محلی میبد بیست" قفیز" (qafiz)  است . در مواردی كه آب قنات بیش ازاین بود ، یا آسیاب دو سنگه می ساختند ، یا همه ی آب را به آسیاب نمی بستند ، آسیاب معمولاً در محلی كه قنات به اصطلاخ" رخت" (rext)  ( پیداشدن اختلاف سطح ناگهانی به طور طبیعی یا مصنوعی ) داشت ، یادرمظهرقنات هایی كه قصد انتقال آن به روستای دیگر داشتند  و مجبور بودند آب را مجدداً ازسطح به عمق ببرند ، ساخته می شد  بااین ترتیب  تنوره ها همیشه در سطح زمین قرارداشت  جز در یك مورد استثنایی در مسیرقنات قطب آباد میبد كه قبل از روآمدن قنات درعمق حدود 40 متری  زمین دو تنوره به عمق 5 تا 7 متر حفركرده آسیابی  ساخته اند که به "آسیاب دوسنگی" معروف است . این آسیاب از نمونه های استثنایی و منحصر به فردآسیاب هایی است كه با آب قنات می چرخیده است

 

The instruction: In order to dye a thread, we should first wet the skein. So the skeins are joined to each other like a chain. That is the two layers of each are woven with each other and are joined together like a chain. They are put in a pool in order to humidify the skeins. In old time, after humidifying the skeins, the workers would walk and strike on them . They would bring them out in order to be laid down on stone layers called ‘sel’ in an altitude of about a meter high. The two worker would bit the skeins with a trapezoid shaped wood called” Kotak” which had a handle of about 40 cm. The workers would bit the skeins so that they get all wet. Why that if even one single string remain dry, that would not absorb the dye. When the workers got assured that the moisture has penetrated in all the skeins, they would hang them on piece of wood which was hanged on wall. Then, they would use a small twig of 50 cm called “pičuna” inside each skein, they would turn it around a butterfly shape, they would turn the other head of skein likewise around, so that to get the water out. Today all the process goes through automatic machines.

3- Mills: In Meibod, the energy source of a meal was the water which was from a subterranean water (Kanât). While the power source was river water in the South and the wind was source in the east, some good examples of these mills are found in Watermills of šuštar and âsbâds in xâf. In order to use the subterranean water, it was required to increase intensity of the power of the water. So the water was manipulated in a pool. So a kind of cylinder shape well like an inverse cone was dug out with a depth of 5-18 meters, in relation to the condition of the subterranean channel. This cylinder shaped well had a narrow neck called ‘nowčengok’ (or Tanbuša) that the diameter of which was equal to the width of three middle fingers. The water would pour on the mill transformer with a high pressure on the ring of mill and it would move the pinwheel.

The location:

The minimum water that can run a mill stone, according to a local unit of measurement is 20 “qafiz”, a unit of measurement which is equal to one liter per second. In cases that the subterranean water was excessive to that amount, there was a double stone mill constructed or they would just use a portion of the water. A mill was built usually where a sub-terrain channel had a rext (that is the emergence of a difference in natural or artificial eventual altitude. Or they would not use all amount of river or at the emergence of sub-terrain water or at the very emergence of water from the sub terrain channel or the emergence of the sub terrain channels through which the water was moved to another village and there was a necessity to send the water again from the surface to the depth. So to say, the stock-holes  were always on the ground surface except in a case in along the way of the sub terrain channel. Like in  Qotb abad, there is a sub terrain in the suburb of Meibod that before coming to the surface, there were two sub terrain well that was located in about 40 meters with the depth of 5-7 meters and would end to mill in the depth of 40 meters, there were two stone mill which is famous as ”two stone mills”. That is unique exceptional mills  which were run by the Kanat or subterranean water.




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