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میبدشناسی جانب اللهی - نقش ونگاره های عامیانه(دستبافته ها، معماری ،سفالگری )


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تاریخ:چهارشنبه 6 شهریور 1392-09:16 ب.ظ

نقش ونگاره های عامیانه(دستبافته ها، معماری ،سفالگری )

موتیف های زیلو به دلیل اهمیت اقتصادی قابل توجهی كه داشته است  ،یكی از عرصه های  نمود ذوقی و هنری  میبدی هاست ،گرچه بیشتر نگاره های زیلو نقش های شناخته شده ای است كه ریشه درفرهنگ  باستانی دارد ، اما بسیاری از این نگاره ها همراه و همگام با تحولات اجتماعی رنگ عوض كرده و حامل پیام هنری عصر خود شده اند ،مثلاً نقش “ تالگ“ یادآور حوض های مستطیل شكلی است كه یكی از ویژگی های معماری سنتی یزد و میبد است.نقش “ سروگ“ در رابطه با قداست سرو است .سرو به خاطر همیشه سبز بودنش تقریباً در تمام مذاهب باستانی از قداست و حرمت برخوردار بوده و سمبل جاودانگی محسوب می شده است. در آیین های مذهبی نیز سرو نقش نمادین دارد، اسكلت چوبی بزرگی به نام “نقل“(نخل) كه هنوز در خیلی از شهرهای ایران منجمله میبد به نام محفه یا تابوت امام حسین (ع) در ایام عاشورا حركت می دهند به روایتی مقطعی از بلندترین قسمت سرو است، حتی یكی از اجزاء تزیینی آن، سبر (s a br) نام دارد كه مقلوب سرو است.نقش “گره “كه با نقش محرابی همراه است رنگ و بوی مذهبی دارد و برای اماكن مذهبی بافته می شود . نقشمایه ­ی كلید و گره نیز همان گردونه­ی خورشید یا خورشید آریایی است كه به نظر محققین «در هنر ایران بعد از اسلام با خط كوفی درهم می آمیزد و متنوع ترین و بدیع ترین شبكه های نقش پردازی را پدیدار می كند شایان ذكر است كه نقش های گره، كلید و سرو اختصاصاً برای زیلوی مساجد و اماكن متبركه بافته می شد، حتی در معماری مذهبی نقش گره و كلید جایگاه ویژه ای دارد پوشش سطح خارجی گنبد مساجد و“ تنوره“­ی آب انبارها شبكه های در و پنجره مساجد و نخل و ضریح امامزاده ها نیز از چنین نقشی شكل گرفته است.

چپ راسگ یاگردونه : نگاره ای شبیه صلیب شکسته است برای همه شگفت انگیز است که صلیب شکسته با زیلو چه نسبتی دارد  "چپ راس" درفرهنگ واژگان میبد به معنی قلاب دو سر است كه برگشتگی دو سر آن در جهت خلاف یكدیگر است ، این نگاره كه در سال های اخیر به گردونه  شهرت یافته است همان سواستیكه یكی از نمادهای رایج باستانی است و“ از آسیای دور تا امریكای مركزی در مغولستان ، هند و اروپای شمالی می بینیم . هیتلر آن را برای نشانه ی حزب خود انتخاب کرد  سواستیكه از صلیبی ساخته شده كه هرجناح آن مانندجهت حركت و بردارها جهت دورانی دایره را تعیین می كند، ارزش عددی سواستیكه چهار ضربدر چهار یعنی 16 است، این عدد نشانه ی پیشرفت قوی واقعیت یا جهان است پیشرفت جهان مخلوق در ارتباط با شخصیت های بزرگ خلاق و رهایی بخش است ، و منوط به پیشرفت شدید یك قدرت دنیوی است كه مختصات تاریخی آن را می توان از شارلمانی تاهیتلر دید سواستیكه ی شارلمانی یا به عبارتی حركت درجهت عكس عقربه ساعت می خواهد ، به بی نهایت و قداست برسد، اما سواستیكه ی هیتلری زودگذری و بی قداستی را جانشین آن می كند“(آلن گربران ، 53 - 651) سواستیكا در سنسكریت به معنی خوشبختی است و برخی آن را همان گردونه ی خورشید- خدا دانسته اند  و از این رو دارای بعضی نمادهای خورشیدی  مانند روشنایی، حاصلخیزی و به ویژه خوشبختی است (هال ، 5)

هشت پر نیز نقشمایه ­ی شناخته شده ای است كه قدیم ترین نمونه ی آن در قالی پازیریك وجود دارد،نمونه هایی از آن در گنبد سلطانیه نیز به چشم می خورد.

 «پرگ» در فرهنگ واژگان میبد «برگ» معنی می دهد، این نقش شبیه پروانه نیز هست و در فرهنگ میبد واژة «پرپرگ» (parparog) معنی پروانه دارد. بی تردید با تغییر شكلی كه به مرور در این نقوش حاصل شده ، وجه تشابهی با پدیده های محیط زیست میبدی ها پیدا كرده و نام های آن تغییر یافته است  و گرنه همه ی این نگاره ها به نوعی در دستبافته های مشابه زیلو، رواج عام دارد و خاص یك منطقه نیست، به عنوان مثال نقش“ پرت توره“ بن مایه ای از نقش قندیل دارد كه در معابد و زیارتگاهها و مساجد جایگاه ویژه ای داشته است. كنگره نیز پدیده نوظهوری نیست، در میبد تصویر فضایی آن در نوعی حصارچینی مشبك  حفاظ پشت بام منازل به نام "شرفی"  (šarafi) به چشم می خورد.

الهام گرفتن از مظاهر ملموس طبیعت در نقشمایه ی دستبافت ها و هر هنر دیگر یكی از سنت های معمول و رایج در هر منطقه است، چونان كه در نگاره های ظروف سفال  و“نانی“ میبدچنین تأثیر پذیری عرصه پهناور تری دارد، زیلوبافان میبدی هم با الهام از محیط زندگی خود نقشی نو آفریده اند .اینكه بیشتر «مج های» «شلیت» در قیاس با «مج» دیگر نام گذاری شده اند خود دلیل بارز تداول نقش های نوظهور است.

Folk Patterns

 

 

( weaved crafts , architecture , pottering) .

Motifs of Ziloos , because of their noticeable economical importance  show the talent and art of people in Meybod . Although most of images of Ziloo belong to ancient persia , most of them have been changed along with the social developments and were a kind of cultural messanger of their age . A pattern called “ Talog” for instance , reminds the small rectangular pools-which is one of the features of yazd and Meybod architecture .A patter , called “ Sarvog”  reminds the holiness of Cedar . Because of its constant green leaves , almost in all ancient religious is holy and respect full and is Symbol of immortality . It is a symbol in religious rituals , too . A wooden structure called “ Naql “ (Nakhl) , which is moved in Ashura” to remember “Imam Hossein” , said to be made of the toppest part of cedar . Even one of its decorative conponants is call “ sabr” which is homophone of “ sarv” ( cedar) .A pattern , called “ Gereh” which is accompanied with “ Mehrab” , a kind of pattern , which is a special kind and is weaved for religious buildings . “Gereh” and “Kelid” ( tie&key) is a symbol of solar system .Researchers about the art in Iran after Islam believe , it has been mixed with “Kufi” handwriting and it makes one of the most innovative and various patterns . It is good to know that “ Gereh” , “Kelid” and cedar was exclusively weaved for Ziloos of mosques and holy places .”Gereh “ and “ Kelid” even in religious architecture has “Key” role . You can find this pattern to cover out side of domes of mosques and “ Tanureh” of water tanks , net works of doors , windows of mosques , “ Nakhl” and bars of Imamzadehs .Octagonal is a famous pattern which the oldest on can be found in “ Pazirik” Carpets . There are also some on dome of “ Soltanieh” “ Parag” in Meybod is called “ Parog” which is a pattern like butterfly and in Meybod language “ Parparog” mean “ butterfly” . Through years , there is a change in form of these patterns and their names have been changed too . These patters are common in other weaved crafts and are not limited to a special region . “ Part-e- tureh” , for instance , is like “ qandil” pattern and was used in temples , Shrines and mosques . The pattern , called ”Kongoreh” is not a new one . you can see this pattern in networks of fences on roofs in Meybod . Weaved crafts and any other arts in each region are inspired by nature .You can see this inspiration in images of pottery and “ Nani” in Meybod . This influence is also noticible in Ziloos




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