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میبدشناسی جانب اللهی - دفتر سوم نظام تولید ، باغداری


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تاریخ:یکشنبه 1 اردیبهشت 1392-05:44 ب.ظ

دفتر سوم نظام تولید ، باغداری

اناركاری :  بعداز آب زمستانی در اواخر  اسفند شروع به كشت نهال می كنند.درمیبدبرای كشت  انار از قلمه   استفاد ه  می شود، فصل قلمه كاری نیز از نیمه تا اواخر اسفند است كه درخت آب كشیده و می خواهد " پتك " ( potk) ( جوانه) بزند  برای تهیه ی  قلمه شاخه ی میانی درخت انار مرغوب  را  می برند ، آن را با بیل یا تبر كوچك به قطعاتی در اندازه های مناسب می برند و بافاصله ی 5متر از هر طرف چاله ای به عمق 30 تا35 سانتی متر حفر می كنند و درهرچاله 3تا4قلمه را به طور عمودی قرار می دهند .به صورتی كه حد اقل سه " پتك" از قلمه یا به اندازه طول یك انگشت ازخاك بیرون بماند.

 انواع انار: انار به دو نوع شیرین وترش تقسیم می شود كه نوع ترش آن  بسیار متنوع است.مهمترین واریته هایی كه درمیبد رواج دارد ، به شرح زیر است :

1- زاغ: دانه های قرمز پررنگ ومایل به سیاه دارد

2- مزرعه سیفی : بادانه های درشت وسیاه وپوست قرمز ولكه دار یابه اصطلاح " پشگی" ( pašogi) ( خال دار و كك مكی).

3- عقدایی : كه پوست قرمز، و گلودراز و دانه ی آن مایل به قرمز و پرآب است .

4-میخوش: مزه ی  آن ترش مایل به شیرین است .

5-دانه زرد یا نباتی : انار بومی میبداست ، زودتر از سایر انارها می رسد ، رنگ دانه ها سرخ نمی شود و پوست بسیار نازكی دارد ، به همین دلیل قابل نگهداری نیست .

6- پوست سفید : معروف به اناركوهی ، پوست سفید ضخیمی دارد و خیلی ترش است.

از انار محصولات جنبی دیگری مثل رب و اناردانه تهیه           می شود كه ارزش صادراتی فوق العاده ای دارد.

پسته كاری: كشت پسته معمولاً در دومرحله انجام می شود

الف-كشت خزانه :پسته را اول در قطعه زمین كوچكی تنگاتنگ هم می كارند،بعدآن را به جای همیشگی منتقل     می كنند،پسته ای كه برای بذر انتخاب می شود  باید 5تا6 روز در آب بخیسانند ، درمدتی كه پسته درآب است هر روز یا دو روز یك بار آب آن را عوض می كنند  كه نپوسد، برای كشت پسته خاك را با نوك داس یاچاقو خراش داده مقداری گود می کنند و پسته را به گونه ای كه نوك آن به طرف پایین با شد  در    چاله ی مزبور می اندازند و مقداری خاك نرم یا ریك روی آن  می ریزند

ب-كشت نهال:  در این مورد نیز اول كود پاشیده و زمین را شخم می زنند ،سپس زمین را هموار كرده و“جوده پشته“ (منظور تقسیم زمین به چندجوب  برای صرفه جویی درمصرف آب است) می كنند، و نهال پسته را كه گلدانی(كپیگ  kopiyog) (  از خزانه بیرون آورده اند، به فاصله 6متر از یكدیگر غرس می كنند  در كنار هر نهال دو دانه پسته نیز می كارند كه اگر نهال نگرفت ، دانه ها سبز شده جای آن را بگیرد .برخی بدون استفاده از خزانه پسته را از اول با فاصله ی هر5 قدم یك دانه می كارند  ، برای كشت باید از بذر پسته خودرو (xodro) استفاده شود.

پیوند: پسته را از دو سه سالگی حتماً باید پیوندبزنند. پیوند پسته یا“بغلی“است كه زمان آن در ایام عید از اول تا بیستم است

انواع پسته:

1- بومی كه به آن “خودپا“هم می گویند،دانه ی آن را می كارند و پیوند نمی زنند، درخت آن خیلی بزرگ می شود و فضای زیادی را اشغال می كند،ولی پربار است و گاهی تا20من (من6كیلو) پسته می دهد.

2-رفسنجانی یاكله قوچی كه درخت آن كوتاه است ، وفضای كمتری می گیرد،لذا تنگتر می كارند  و هر درخت 2تا3من محصول می دهد ،كه  پسته ی آن مرغوب و مغز آن درشت تر از سایر پسته ها است ولی آب بیشتر می خواهد

3- فندقی كه درخت آن كوچك است  و بهترین پسته است   این پسته نیز به آب زیاد نیاز دارد .

4- آجیلی كه خیلی ریز ولی تمام خندان است، آن را با آجیل مخلوط می كنند

سفیدكردن پسته : پسته را بعد از چیدن باید پوست بكنند و به اصطلاح سفید كنند ،درقدیم باوسیله ای به نام “كتك“ و زدن ضربه به آن پوست می كندند ،پسته ی كاملاً رسیده را با دست پوست می كنند كه در اصطلاح به آن شسی  šassi)  )       می گویند .         

 

Third book

System of production

(Agriculture , Gardening , cattleing , Industry of local Crafts)

Economy of Meybod was dependent to agricultural products which was supported with local and domestic workshop industries in few decades ago .The most common agricultural products of Meybod includes : wheat cotton and  Alizarin (Ronas ) . They were planted with traditional methods  Most of the work was done in plantation stay by work groups , called” Band-e-Shagerd” . This work group was consisted of at least 4 people .2 of them had to be left footed to avoid pulling the soil on one side while ploughing .The ploughing was different based on the Kind of the product and style of plantation : “ one spade” is when they plough as deep as the length of the spade , a sit is 25 centimeters , this depth was good for scattered roots plants like wheat or watermelon . For plant like cotton which their roots go deep in the ground the “ two spade” style was used  it means the ground was ploughed as deep as the length of two spade . To plant trees , especially pomegranate they ploughed the ground 3 or 4 spade . This method is still used in gardens with narrow pathes . In one of the methods of wheat plantation , called “ Sar-e-nem kari”, a short  blade plough share was used and it was pulled by a man . In harvest stage  the labors used to work together and they were at least 5 to 6 people . 3 of them worked with Cow and thresher and other tools like “ Kam”( a small screen with holes bigger them normal screens) and screens and one or two other people had only Cow . Only one of them didn’t have a Cow and other tools who was in charge of services . In stage of cleaning the harvest this group formed another group called “ Barpaz” . In some of stages of threshing some process had religious atmosphere .

1- Cleaning  of the  wheat: After  cleaning the harvest , because the wags were dependent to amount of the product , so even the retail owners would weigh the wheat , but before this the ceremony of cealing the wheat was performed They would pile up the harvest in one place . While praying they made a circle at bottom and another one at top of the pile by wall of a “ Kam” ( a small screen) . It was a kind of  rituals remained from thanks giving ceremonies . It didn’t have any role and a few minutes later this ceal was broken .

2-Scaling: It was done by a person called ”Dashtban” Who would weigh  the  harvest  with a scale. It was Done  by  reading  prays  and  praising  one of  the religious leaders up to number 12 they would prais  one of the Imams . They wouldn’t  read number 13 to stay away of its unluckiness  and they would say “ ziyadeh” instead , they would say “ salavat” in number 14 in rememberance of “ Chardeh Masum” , they would continue up to number 20 .( because animals could carry up to 20 Man(Man= 6 kg) ) they would say the names of prophets and this ceremony as repeated until the end of scaling all of the harvest .

Gardening

Among centers of producing pomegranate in Yazd , Meybod has a especial fame . To plant pomegranate , there were 2 stages to pass . one is building a garden .The pomegranate garden in Meybod should be surrounded by wall . They usually used their best ground to build gardens  it was a ground with good soil , easy access to water and near to village . The walls were in the form of “ Chineh” . They used to tread the mud and cut them in the form of bricks with a spade and make a wall . The with of wall is at first 40 and height of the bricks was 50 cm. They usually used 7 rows as high as 3 or 3.5 m. T o make a wall . It width was decreased as it was going higher . As it will be 10cm on the 7th row .The second stage is to plough the land of the garden  , it should be as deep as one meter , called “ 3 or 4 spade “ . At first they would water the land at first of winter to soften the soil by cold weather .  They would plough the land in the middle of the April and leave the land for six months to let the         unwanted plants dry . Under the sunshine the pest of land will be removed and the soil will be richer . The following winter , the land is watered again . It has two advantages :

1- Ploughed land needs a lot of water and it is costly . In winter there is no plantation and water is not divided in to shaves and it is free too .

2- Ice makes the land softer and more penetrable which is good for roots of young trees 

Planting Pomegranates : After winter watering  , the young trees are planted . They used slips in Meybod . The season for propagating by slips is from first  of December to its mid that the young trees had water and are ready to sprout . To prepare a slip , they cut a middle branch of a good pomegranate tree and cut it to appropriate sizes with small axes . They dig holes as deep as 30 to 35 cm by 5 m distance and place 3to 4  slips vertically in each hole .There should be at least 3 sprouts of each slip out of soil as long as a finger Kinds of Pomegranate : They are divided in To sweet and sour . It is sour ones are:

1-“Zagh”: it has dark red or semi black seeds .

2-Mazraeh Seifi : It has big black seeds and red skin with spots (Pashogi).

3- Aghdaee : It has red skin , long neck , its seed is semi red and juicy .

4- Meykhosh : It has sour and sweet taste .

5-Daneh zard or Nabati : It is native pomegranate of Meybod it gets ripe faster than other types . Its seeds will not  get red and it has thin skin , so it can’t  be kept for along time .

6-White skin : well known as mountain pomegranate .It has a thick skin and is very sour .

Side products are made from pomegranate as pomegranate paste and seeds which are exported and valuable .

Planting Pistachio : It is usually done in two stages .

A) Khazaneh : Pistachios are first planted next to each other in a small land . Then , they are transfered to their permanent place . Then the land is flatten and divided by several canals to save water . The pistachio young trees which are in form of plant pots are planted with a 6 meter distance . Next to each young tree , 2  pistachios  are planted to be grown if the young tree doesn’t grow .

B) Some people plant the pistachios without using young trees with a five feet distance . for plantation a kind of  pistachio called “ Khodru” is used .

Kinds of pistachio :

1-Native , which is called “ Khodpa” . They only plant its seeds . Its tree grows very big and needs a lot of space , but it gives good amount of products , often up to 120 kg.

2- Rafsanjani or “Kalleh ghuchi” : It has a short tree and needs less space  so they are planted closer to each other and each tree produce 12 to 18 kg pistachio .It’s product is better and has a bigger core but it needs more water .

3-Ajili: It is small but widely open . It is mixed with nuts ( Ajil).

Peeling the pistachio: After picking , the pistachios should be peeled . In past , it was done by beating them with a tool , called “ Kotak” . Completely ripped pistachios are peeled with hands and this process is called “ shassi”.




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